The emerging social science in the mid-twentieth century in Latin America considered inequalities as part of the discussion of capitalist development and the evolution of class relations. In the recent book Rethinking Inequalities , Elizabeth Jelin mobile phone number list recovers the important works that can serve as a counterpoint to more contemporary debates about inequalities and differences. Gender, ethnicity/race and citizenship in class societies Historical realities, analytical approaches Equality is a concern that, implicitly or explicitly, has been and mobile phone number list continues to be at the center of social struggles.
The academic and political debates on the subject have asked if the central thing is the equality of opportunities or of results; if it refers to the expansion of citizenship rights or to compensation and redistribution mechanisms in the face of mobile phone number list concentration and polarization produced by the capitalist market economy; if it has to do with human capital or with social structures; if it is a matter of capabilities or opportunities; even if a social revolution is required to achieve social equality or there may be gradual reform processes. These debates are not just theoretical; During the last decades, the neoliberal and individualistic mobile phone number list economic paradigm, by discarding social structures and the central function of institutions, has placed the emphasis on individual capacities, on effort and personal achievement as engines of well-being, alluding only tangential to social inequalities.
This perspective also took as its ideal and assumption the self-regulating functioning of the market, an assumption that had already been criticized mobile phone number list and discarded decades ago by Karl Polanyi. The accent was placed on the level of individuals, and it was a dominant ideology (or utopia) for a time, above interpretations anchored in social structures and power relations, whether local or global. Hence, in these decades there has been more talk of mobile phone number list poverty than of inequality and that social policies – where they have been implemented – have been oriented towards reducing poverty rather than towards the redistribution of wealth. Also that the language of classes and class struggle has been obscured, if not lost, as well as the role of the State as a regulator, beyond the implementation of compensatory policies –particularly targeted social policies–.